Updated on June 22, 2016, 3:20 AM (UTC-7): We updated this entry to revise details on the solutions segment, particularly the command to be executed when removing the malware.
Using multiple devices that run on one platform makes life easier for a lot of people. However, if a malware affects one of these devices, the said malware may eventually affect the others, too. This appears to be the case when we came across an Android mobile lock-screen ransomware, known as “FLocker,” that is capable of locking smart TVs as well.
Figure 1. TV ransomware screen
Ever since FLocker (detected as ANDROIDOS_FLOCKER.A and short for “Frantic Locker”) first came out in May 2015, we have gathered over 7,000 variants in our sample bank. Its author kept rewriting the malware to avoid detection and improve its routine. Over the past few months, we have seen spikes and drops in the number of iterations released. The latest spike came in mid-April with over 1,200 variants.
The latest variant of FLocker is a police Trojan that pretends to be US Cyber Police or another law enforcement agency. It accuses potential victims of crimes they didn’t commit. Then, it demands 200 USD worth of iTunes gift cards. And based on our analysis, there are no major differences between a FLocker variant that can infect a mobile device and one that affects smart TVs. Below are our analysis of FLocker’s routines.
To avoid static analysis, FLocker hides its code in raw data files inside the “assets” folder. The file it creates is named “form.html” and looks like a normal file.
Figure 2. FLocker avoiding static analysis
By doing so, the code of “classes.dex” becomes quite simple and no malicious behavior could be found there. Thus the malware has the chance to escape from static code analysis. When the malware runs, it decrypts “form.html” and executes the malicious code.
Figure 3. Encrypted code classes.dex (top) and decrypted code “form.html” (bottom)
When launched for the first time, FLocker checks whether the device is located in the following Eastern European counties: Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Armenia and Belarus. If the device detects that it is located in any of these locations, it deactivates itself.
If FLocker reaches a compatible target, it waits for 30 minutes after infecting the unit before it runs the routine. After the short waiting period, it starts the background service which requests device admin privileges immediately. We consider it as a trick to bypass dynamic sandbox. If the user denies this request, it will freeze the screen faking a system update.
Figure 4. FLocker bypassing certain countries
The ransom webpage fits the screen, regardless if it infected a mobile device or a smart TV.
Figure 5. FLocker ransom page capture
While the screen is locked, the C&C server collects data such as device information, phone number, contacts, real time location, and other information. These data are encrypted with a hardcoded AES key and encoded in base64.
Figure 6. Information sent to C&C server
Ransomware usually reach users via spam SMS or malicious links. This is why users should be wary when browsing the internet or when receiving messages or email from unknown sources.
We suggest user to contact the device vendor for solution first if their Android TV gets infected. Another way of removing the malware is possible if the user can enable ADB debugging. Users can connect their device with a PC and launch the ADB shell and execute the command "pm clear %pkg%" , with %pkg% referring to the malware's package name. This kills the ransomware process and unlocks the screen. Users can then deactivate the device admin privilege granted to the application and uninstall the app.
For securing mobile devices, we advise installing security software in their smart devices to protect it from malicious apps and threats. Trend Micro Mobile Security and Trend Micro Mobile Security Personal Edition protects users from this ransomware and other related threats. Trend Micro Mobile Security Personal Edition is available on Google Play.