Ransomware Spotlight: Royal
Top affected countries and industries
according to Trend Micro data
Targeted regions and industries
according to Royal ransomware’s leak site
Infection chain and techniques
External reports mention that one of the arrival methods of Royal Ransomware is via the Callback Phishing scam where victims are tricked into installing remote desktop software. This method is similar to the techniques used by the Conti group.
- We have also recently observed Royal arriving from Batloader and IcedID malware.
- Upon successful installation of a remote software, attackers usually use tools like PCHunter, Process Hacker, GMER, or PowerTool to manually uninstall AV products installed on the target system.
- Attackers also use tools like NetScan and AdFind along with windows net.exe and nltest.exe to gain information of the victims Active Directory and connected remote systems.
- We have also observed Royal ransomware actors using Advanced Port Scanner, a free network scanner, to find and open ports.
Lateral Movement and Command and Control
- Royal ransomware has also been observed to use Cobalt Strike and Qakbot to pivot on target machines and deploy other tools and payloads.
- Our observations from Royal ransomware activity also saw dual use agents, such as Connectwise, Splashtop, Atera, and Syncro, to connect to victim environments and execute malicious processes.
- Rclone was found on the victim machines; the program is usually used to exfiltrate stolen information.
- Royal Ransomware requires an “-id” argument to execute; this is any 32-character-long argument. It also accepts a “path” argument for target encryption, and the “-ep” argument which indicates the encryption percentage for large files to encrypt.
- Encryption can be on local and network paths; the latest Royal ransomware variant has an option to choose either local, network or both.
- Shadow copies are also deleted using the vssadmin tool.
MITRE tactics and techniques
|Initial Access||Execution||Defense Evasion||Discovery||Exfiltration||Lateral Movement||Command and Control||Impact|
T1566 - Phishing
T1059 - Command and Scripting Interpreter
T1562.001 - Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify Tools
T1112 - Modify Registry
T1069 - Permission Groups Discovery: Domain groups
T1018 - Remote System Discovery
T1567 - Exfiltration Over Web Service
T1570 - Lateral Tool Transfer
T1095 - Non-Application Layer Protocol
T1490 - Inhibit System Recovery
T1486 - Data Encrypted for Impact
Summary of malware, tools, and exploits used
Security teams should take note of and observe the presence of the following malware and tools typically used in Royal ransomware attacks:
- Process Hacker
- Advanced Port Scanner
Backed by threat actors from Conti, Royal ransomware is poised to wreak havoc in the threat landscape after it became one of the most prolific ransomware groups within the three months since it was first reported. Combining new and old techniques and quick to evolve, Royal poses a high-stakes threat to enterprises. Organizations are recommended to stay vigilant against such threats.
To protect systems against Royal ransomware and other similar threats, organizations can implement security frameworks that allocate resources systematically to establish a strong defense strategy.
Here are some best practices that organizations can adopt to defend against Royal ransomware:
Audit and inventory
- Take an inventory of assets and data
- Identify authorized and unauthorized devices and software
- Audit event and incident logs
Configure and monitor
- Manage hardware and software configurations
- Grant admin privileges and access only when necessary to an employee’s role
- Monitor network ports, protocols, and services
- Activate security configurations on network infrastructure devices such as firewalls and routers
- Establish a software allowlist that only executes legitimate applications
Patch and update
- Conduct regular vulnerability assessments
- Perform patching or virtual patching for operating systems and applications
- Update software and applications to their latest versions
Protect and recover
- Implement data protection, backup, and recovery measures
- Enable multifactor authentication (MFA)
Secure and defend
- Employ sandbox analysis to block malicious emails
- Deploy the latest versions of security solutions to all layers of the system, including email, endpoint, web, and network
- Discover early signs of an attack, such as the presence of suspicious tools in the system
- Use advanced detection technologies such as those powered by AI and machine learning
Train and test
- Regularly train and assess employees’ security skills
- Conduct red-team exercises and penetration tests
A multilayered approach can help organizations guard possible entry points into their system (endpoint, email, web, and network). Security solutions can detect malicious components and suspicious behavior, which can in turn help protect enterprises.
- Trend Micro Vision One™ provides multilayered protection and behavior detection, which helps block questionable behavior and tools early on before ransomware can do irreversible damage to the system.
- Trend Micro Cloud One™ – Workload Security protects systems against both known and unknown threats that exploit vulnerabilities. This protection is made possible through techniques such as virtual patching and machine learning.
- Trend Micro™ Deep Discovery™ – Email Inspector employs custom sandboxing and advanced analysis techniques to effectively block malicious emails, including phishing emails that can serve as entry points for ransomware.
- Trend Micro Apex One™ offers next-level automated threat detection and response against advanced concerns such as fileless threats and ransomware, ensuring the protection of endpoints.
Indicators of Compromise (IOCs)
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