FBot aka Satori Is Back With New Peculiar Obfuscation, Brute-force Techniques


We have recently observed that the Mirai-variant FBot (detected by Trend Micro as IoT.Linux.MIRAI.DLET), also known as Satori, has resurfaced with a brand-new obfuscation technique and a tweaked brute-force attack routine. After analysis, we discovered that this FBot malware uses a peculiar combination of XOR encryption and a simple substitution cipher, which has not been previously used by other IoT malware variants. We have also observed that for its brute-force mechanism, the credentials this FBot sample uses are not located within the executable binary — instead, they are received from a command-and-control (C&C) server.

Our honeypots have been under attack by different IP addresses in an attempt to distribute the FBot malware since mid-November. After analyzing the FBot sample, we discovered that the malware obfuscates the strings it uses for its operation. It decrypts its payload in a host machine using the “0x59” XOR encryption.

Figure 1. XOR-encrypted data embedded in the FBot sample

 We have also observed that after the payload has been decrypted, there are two strings used in FBot’s simple substitution cipher:

Cipher Alphabet Plaintext Alphabet
"MLSDFQWYXNCZRPOKGIUTABVHEJtfqomaechlynudwvjrxigkzsbp7890254163=@^$" "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789./ -"

By replacing each character in the encrypted string with the corresponding letter in the plaintext alphabet (i.e., M=A, L=B), the following string was found:

/proc/self/exe/proc//maps/comm/cwd/var/tmp/varpizzadongshelperOfHelpingslavefartedlolfgtwolfexecbintelnetonPLSDIEPOST /cdn-cgi//proc/net/tcpGET / HTTP/1.0uc-httpd 1.0.0re the chicken and the melon tasty enough

It should be noted, though, that some of FBot’s strings were encrypted using the “0x07” XOR encryption.

We have also observed that for its brute-force attacks, this FBot variant uses credentials that are located in its C&C server (5[.]206[.]227[.]65:7685). It accesses the server, downloads a list of usernames and passwords, and attempts to gain access to vulnerable devices.

Trend Micro solutions

Trend Micro Smart Home Network provides an embedded network security solution that protects all devices connected to a home network against cyberattacks. Based on Trend Micro’s rich threat research experience and industry-leading deep packet inspection (DPI) technology, Trend Micro Smart Home Network offers intelligent quality of service (iQoS), parental controls, network security, and more.

The Trend Micro Deep Discovery™ solution provides detection, in-depth analysis, and proactive response to attacks using exploits and similar threats through specialized engines, custom sandboxing, and seamless correlation across the entire attack life cycle, allowing it to detect these kinds of attacks even without engine or pattern updates.

Users of the Trend Micro Smart Home Network solution are protected from particular vulnerabilities and related attacks via these rules:

  • DDI rule 4227 - Port Sweep - TCP

These solutions are powered by XGen™ security, which provides a cross-generational blend of threat defense techniques against a full range of threats for data centerscloud environmentsnetworks, and endpoints. Smart, optimized, and connected, XGen powers Trend Micro’s suite of security solutions: Hybrid Cloud Security, User Protection, and Network Defense.

Indicators of Compromise


  • 51e208e0003ebcf2225f0482865dd03896f759c170f0be84649f666c13e1130c


  • Ohyaya[.]raiseyourdongers[.]pw                              Disease Vector
  • 5[.]206[.]227[.]65[:]7685                                              C&C Server

With insights from Augusto Remillano II


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Posted in Internet of Things