The second set of categories for AI systems measure them against the ability to perform rationally; this is distinct from human behavior because people are just not rational at times. There are, again, 2 ways to approach AI here: the systems can think rationally or act rationally.
Charniak and McDermott described a system that can think rationally in 1985 as "the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models." This is considered the “laws of thought” approach.
Aristotle was the first to explain what he called “right-thinking,” or irrefutable reasoning processes. The example given by Russell and Norvig is "socrates is a man, all men are mortal; therefore, Socrates is mortal."
It is also possible for a system to act rationally, exhibiting skills based on the Turning Test. Poole described what must be done to create an AI system that can act rationally as "computational intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent agents."