Security researchers warn that homograph attacks — also known as punycode technique — are becoming more popularly used for SMiShing to deceive users, steal information, or infect smartphones and other devices with malware. The attacks work because current web browsers fail to tell the difference between spoof sites since the domain characters belong in allowable combinations and whitelisted top-level-domains (TLDs).
Cybercriminals use punycode to mislead users into clicking on the URL included in the message as if it were a legitimate link. SMiShing campaigns with embedded links are becoming popular as consumers are less likely to notice the subtle differences. Web browsers decide if the punycode or the IDN will be displayed based on alphabet combinations — such as Latin, Cyrillic or Unicode — and with character separators “.” or “/” that can be used to spoof the real URL domain label. If the characters are included in the list of allowable combinations, browsers may list the URL with certifications and IDNs while redirecting them to other pages for malware infection.
Cybercriminals are constantly searching for workarounds to current security measures, and users have to be aware of URLs inserted in IMs and SMS that they open. Programmers have yet to find a foolproof fix for the malicious nature of punycode, but here are a few recommendations to avoid these threats:
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