In today's increasingly connected world, red teaming has become a critical tool for organisations to test their security and identify possible gaps within their defences.
Red teaming, also known as red cell, adversary simulation, or Cyber Red Team, involves simulating real-world cyber attackers' tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) to assess an organisation's security posture.
In the world of cybersecurity, the term "red teaming" refers to a method of ethical hacking that is goal-oriented and driven by specific objectives. This is accomplished using a variety of techniques, such as social engineering, physical security testing, and ethical hacking, to mimic the actions and behaviours of a real attacker who combines several different TTPs that, at first glance, do not appear to be connected to one another but allows the attacker to achieve their objectives.
The goal of red teaming is to provide organisations with valuable insights into their cyber security defences and identify gaps and weaknesses that need to be addressed. By simulating real-world attackers, red teaming allows organisations to better understand how their systems and networks can be exploited and provide them with an opportunity to strengthen their defences before a real attack occurs.
Red teaming is a valuable tool for organisations of all sizes, but it is particularly important for larger organisations with complex networks and sensitive data. There are several key benefits to using a red team.
- First, a red team can provide an objective and unbiased perspective on a business plan or decision. Because red team members are not directly involved in the planning process, they are more likely to identify flaws and weaknesses that may have been overlooked by those who are more invested in the outcome.
- Second, a red team can help identify potential risks and vulnerabilities that may not be immediately apparent. This is particularly important in complex or high-stakes situations, where the consequences of a mistake or oversight can be severe. By using a red team, organisations can identify and address potential risks before they become a problem.
- Third, a red team can help foster healthy debate and discussion within the primary team. The red team's challenges and criticisms can help spark new ideas and perspectives, which can lead to more creative and effective solutions, critical thinking, and continuous improvement within an organisation. By regularly challenging and critiquing plans and decisions, a red team can help promote a culture of questioning and problem-solving that brings about better outcomes and more effective decision-making.
- Additionally, a red team can help organisations build resilience and adaptability by exposing them to different viewpoints and scenarios. This can enable organisations to be more prepared for unexpected events and challenges and to respond more effectively to changes in the environment. By regularly conducting red teaming exercises, organisations can stay one step ahead of potential attackers and reduce the risk of a costly cyber security breach.
However, red teaming is not without its challenges. Conducting red teaming exercises can be time-consuming and costly and requires specialised expertise and knowledge. Additionally, red teaming can sometimes be seen as a disruptive or confrontational activity, which gives rise to resistance or pushback from within an organisation.
To overcome these challenges, the organisation ensures that they have the necessary resources and support to carry out the exercises effectively by establishing clear goals and objectives for their red teaming activities. It is also important to communicate the value and benefits of red teaming to all stakeholders and to ensure that red-teaming activities are conducted in a controlled and ethical manner.
There are several different types of red team engagements, including:
- External red teaming: This type of red team engagement simulates an attack from outside the organisation, such as from a hacker or other external threat. The goal of external red teaming is to test the organisation's ability to defend against external attacks and identify any vulnerabilities that could be exploited by attackers.
- Internal red teaming (assumed breach): This type of red team engagement assumes that its systems and networks have already been compromised by attackers, such as from an insider threat or from an attacker who has gained unauthorised access to a system or network by using someone else's login credentials, which they may have obtained through a phishing attack or other means of credential theft. The goal of internal red teaming is to test the organisation's ability to defend against these threats and identify any potential gaps that the attacker could exploit.
- Physical red teaming: This type of red team engagement simulates an attack on the organisation's physical assets, such as its buildings, equipment, and infrastructure. The goal of physical red teaming is to test the organisation's ability to defend against physical threats and identify any weaknesses that attackers could exploit to allow for entry.
- Hybrid red teaming: This type of red team engagement combines elements of the different types of red teaming mentioned above, simulating a multi-faceted attack on the organisation. The goal of hybrid red teaming is to test the organisation's overall resilience to a wide range of potential threats.
- Purple teaming: this type is a team of cybersecurity experts from the blue team (typically SOC analysts or security engineers tasked with protecting the organisation) and red team who work together to protect organisations from cyber threats. The team uses a combination of technical expertise, analytical skills, and innovative strategies to identify and mitigate potential weaknesses in networks and systems.
The purpose of the red team is to improve the blue team; nevertheless, this can fail if there is no continuous interaction between both teams. There needs to be shared information, management, and metrics so that the blue team can prioritise their goals. By including the blue teams in the engagement, the team can have a better understanding of the attacker's methodology, making them more effective in employing existing solutions to help identify and prevent threats. In the same manner, understanding the defence and the mindset allows the Red Team to be more creative and find niche vulnerabilities unique to the organisation.
Each of the engagements above offers organisations the ability to identify areas of weakness that could allow an attacker to compromise the environment successfully.
Purple teaming offers the best of both offensive and defensive strategies. It can be an effective way to improve an organisation's cybersecurity practices and culture, as it allows both the red team and the blue team to collaborate and share knowledge. By understanding the attack methodology and the defence mindset, both teams can be more effective in their respective roles. Purple teaming also allows for the efficient exchange of information between the teams, which can help the blue team prioritise its goals and improve its capabilities.
Many organisations are moving to Managed Detection and Response (MDR) to help improve their cybersecurity posture and better protect their data and assets. MDR involves outsourcing the monitoring and response to cybersecurity threats to a third-party provider. The service typically includes 24/7 monitoring, incident response, and threat hunting to help organisations identify and mitigate threats before they can cause damage. MDR can be especially beneficial for smaller organisations that may not have the resources or expertise to effectively handle cybersecurity threats in-house.
Red teaming can validate the effectiveness of MDR by simulating real-world attacks and attempting to breach the security measures in place. This enables the team to identify opportunities for improvement, provide deeper insights into how an attacker might target an organisation's assets, and provide recommendations for improvement in the MDR system. Additionally, red teaming can also test the response and incident handling capabilities of the MDR team to ensure that they are prepared to effectively handle a cyber-attack. Overall, red teaming helps to ensure that the MDR system is robust and effective in protecting the organisation against cyber threats.
To keep up with the constantly evolving threat landscape, red teaming is a valuable tool for organisations to assess and improve their cyber security defences. By simulating real-world attackers, red teaming allows organisations to identify vulnerabilities and strengthen their defences before a real attack occurs. Organisations must ensure that they have the necessary resources and support to conduct red teaming exercises effectively.