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Threat Encyclopedia

TSPY_ZBOT.XMAS

ANALYSIS BY

jasperm


ALIASES:

Hbedv: TR/Kazy.3994.2; Rising: Packer.Win32.Agent.bk [Suspicious] ; FSecure: Gen:Variant.Kazy.3994

PLATFORM:

Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003

OVERALL RISK RATING:
REPORTED INFECTION:
SYSTEM IMPACT RATING:
INFORMATION EXPOSURE:

  • Threat Type:Spyware

  • Destructiveness:No

  • Encrypted: Yes

  • In the wild: Yes

OVERVIEW


This spyware uses social engineering methods to lure users into performing certain actions that may, directly or indirectly, cause malicious routines to be performed. Specifically, it disguises as a Christmas card to trick users into thinking that the website they are accessing is non-malicious.

To get a one-glance comprehensive view of the behavior of this Spyware, refer to the Threat Diagram shown below.

It downloads a configuration file from a remote URL. This configuration file contains a list of online sites to monitor.

It monitors a user's browsing activity. Once a user accesses any of the monitored sites, this malware starts logging keystrokes.

It sends the gathered information to remote sites. The stolen information may be used for malicious purposes.

It bypasses firewalls, enabling routines to be freely executed on the system.

This spyware may be dropped by other malware. It may be unknowingly downloaded by a user while visiting malicious websites. It may be downloaded from remote sites by other malware.

It modifies the affected system's HOSTS files. This prevents users from accessing certain websites.

It attempts to steal sensitive online banking information, such as user names and passwords. This routine risks the exposure of the user's account information, which may then lead to the unauthorized use of the stolen data. It attempts to steal information, such as user names and passwords, used when logging into certain banking or finance-related websites.

It checks for the presence of the following processes which are related to Outpost Personal Firewall and ZoneLabs Firewall Client:

  • outpost.exe
  • zlclient.exe

It terminates if either of the said processes exist. This is to ensure that it runs uninterrupted. It also has rootkit capabilities, which enables it to hide its processes and files from the user.

TECHNICAL DETAILS

File Size:

179,712 bytes

File Type:

PE

Memory Resident:

Yes

Initial Samples Received Date:

24 Dec 2010

Payload:

Downloads files, Modifies HOSTS file

Arrival Details

This spyware may be dropped by other malware.

It may be unknowingly downloaded by a user while visiting malicious websites.

It may be unknowingly downloaded by a user while visiting the following malicious websites:

  • http://{BLOCKED}developersdk.com/wp-admin/includes/card.zip

It may be downloaded from remote site(s) by the following malware:

  • HTML_IFRAME.SMAX

Installation

This spyware drops the following files:

  • %System%\lowsec\local.ds - copy of the encrypted downloaded file
  • %System%\lowsec\user.ds.lll
  • %System%\lowsec\user.ds - used to save the gathered information
  • %system%\sdra64.exe - copy of itself

(Note: %System% is the Windows system folder, which is usually C:\Windows\System32.)

It creates the following folders:

  • %System%\lowsec

(Note: %System% is the Windows system folder, which is usually C:\Windows\System32.)

It adds the following mutexes to ensure that only one of its copies runs at any one time:

  • _AVIRA_2109

It is injected into the following processes running in memory:

  • WINLOGON.EXE
  • SVCHOST.EXE

Autostart Technique

This spyware modifies the following registry entry(ies) to enable its automatic execution at every system startup:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\
Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
Userinit = %System%\userinit.exe, %System%\sdra64.exe,

(Note: The default value data of the said registry entry is %System%\userinit.exe,.)

Other System Modifications

This spyware adds the following registry entries as part of its installation routine:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\
Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Network
UID = "{computer name}_{random numbers}"

It adds the following registry keys as part of its installation routine:

HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\
Microsoft\ Windows\CurrentVersion\
Explorer\{43BF8CD1-C5D5-2230-7BB2-98F22C2B7DC6}

HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\
Microsoft\ Windows\CurrentVersion\
Explorer\{19127AD2-394B-70F5-C650-B97867BAA1F7}

HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\
Microsoft\Protected Storage System Provider

It creates the following registry entry(ies) to bypass Windows Firewall:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\
Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\
FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile
EnableFirewall = "0"

Download Routine

This spyware connects to the following URL(s) to download its configuration file:

  • http://{BLOCKED}anvik.no/templates/system/sysny.bin

HOSTS File Modification

This spyware modifies the affected system's HOSTS files to prevent a user from accessing the following websites:

  • 127.0.0.1 downloads
  • 127.0.0.1 downloads
  • 127.0.0.1 downloads
  • 127.0.0.1 downloads
  • 127.0.0.1 downloads
  • 127.0.0.1 rads.mcaf
  • 127.0.0.1 liveupdat
  • 127.0.0.1 liveupdat
  • 127.0.0.1 liveupdat
  • 127.0.0.1 update.sy
  • 127.0.0.1 download7
  • 127.0.0.1 download6
  • 127.0.0.1 download5
  • 127.0.0.1 download4
  • 127.0.0.1 download3
  • 127.0.0.1 download2
  • 127.0.0.1 download1
  • 127.0.0.1 avu.zonel
  • 127.0.0.1 retail.sp
  • 127.0.0.1 retail01.
  • 127.0.0.1 retail02.
  • 127.0.0.1 acs.panda
  • 127.0.0.1 pccreg.an
  • 127.0.0.1 dl1.antiv
  • 127.0.0.1 dl2.antiv
  • 127.0.0.1 dl3.antiv
  • 127.0.0.1 dl4.antiv
  • 127.0.0.1 fr.mcafee
  • 127.0.0.1 mcafee.co
  • 127.0.0.1 antivirus
  • 127.0.0.1 ftp.esafe
  • 127.0.0.1 ftp.europ
  • 127.0.0.1 ftp.syman
  • 127.0.0.1 us.mcafee
  • 127.0.0.1 security.
  • 127.0.0.1 download.
  • 127.0.0.1 shop.syma
  • 127.0.0.1 dispatch.
  • 127.0.0.1 f-secure.
  • 127.0.0.1 kaspersky
  • 127.0.0.1 mast.mcaf
  • 127.0.0.1 secure.na
  • 127.0.0.1 sophos.co

Information Theft

This spyware monitors the Internet Explorer (IE) activities of the affected system, specifically the address bar or title bar. It recreates a legitimate website with a spoofed login page if a user visits banking sites with the following strings in the address bar or title bar:

  • */my.ebay.com/*CurrentPage=MyeBayPersonalInfo*
  • *.ebay.com/*eBayISAPI.dll?*
  • https://www.us.hsbc.com/*
  • https://www.e-gold.com/acct/li.asp
  • https://www.e-gold.com/acct/balance.asp*
  • https://online.wellsfargo.com/das/cgi-bin/session.cgi*
  • https://www.wellsfargo.com/*
  • https://online.wellsfargo.com/login*
  • https://online.wellsfargo.com/signon*
  • https://www.paypal.com/*/webscr?cmd=_account
  • https://www.paypal.com/*/webscr?cmd=_login-done*
  • https://www#.usbank.com/internetBanking/LoginRouter
  • https://easyweb*.tdcanadatrust.com/servlet/*FinancialSummaryServlet*
  • https://www#.citizensbankonline.com/*/index-wait.jsp
  • https://onlinebanking.nationalcity.com/OLB/secure/AccountList.aspx
  • https://www.suntrust.com/portal/server.pt*parentname=Login*
  • https://www.53.com/servlet/efsonline/index.html*
  • https://web.da-us.citibank.com/*BS_Id=MemberHomepage*
  • *sitekey.bankofamerica.com*
  • https://onlineeast#.bankofamerica.com/cgi-bin/ias/*/GotoWelcome
  • https://online.wamu.com/Servicing/Servicing.aspx?targetPage=AccountSummary
  • https://onlinebanking#.wachovia.com/myAccounts.aspx?referrer=authService
  • *chase.com*
  • https://resources.chase.com/MyAccounts.aspx
  • *usaa.com*
  • *wamu.com*
  • https://bancaonline.openbank.es/servlet/PProxy?*
  • https://extranet.banesto.es/*/loginParticulares.htm
  • https://banesnet.banesto.es/*/loginEmpresas.htm
  • https://empresas.gruposantander.es/WebEmpresas/servlet/webempresas.servlets.*
  • https://www.gruposantander.es/bog/sbi*?ptns=acceso*
  • https://www.bbvanetoffice.com/local_bdno/login_bbvanetoffice.html
  • https://www.bancajaproximaempresas.com/ControlEmpresas*
  • *citibank*
  • https://probanking.procreditbank.bg/main/main.asp*
  • https://ibank.internationalbanking.barclays.com/logon/icebapplication*
  • https://ibank.barclays.co.uk/olb/x/LoginMember.do
  • https://online-offshore.lloydstsb.com/customer.ibc
  • https://online-business.lloydstsb.co.uk/customer.ibc
  • https://www.dab-bank.com*
  • http://www.hsbc.co.uk/1/2/personal/internet-banking*
  • https://www.nwolb.com/Login.aspx*
  • https://home.ybonline.co.uk/login.html*
  • https://home.cbonline.co.uk/login.html*
  • https://welcome27.co-operativebank.co.uk/CBIBSWeb/start.do
  • https://welcome23.smile.co.uk/SmileWeb/start.do
  • https://www.halifax-online.co.uk/_mem_bin/formslogin.asp*
  • https://www2.bancopopular.es/AppBPE/servlet/servin*
  • https://www.bancoherrero.com/es/*
  • https://pastornetparticulares.bancopastor.es/SrPd*
  • https://intelvia.cajamurcia.es/2043/entrada/01entradaencrip.htm
  • https://www.caja-granada.es/cgi-bin/INclient_2031
  • https://www.fibancmediolanum.es/BasePage.aspx*
  • https://carnet.cajarioja.es/banca3/tx0011/0011.jsp
  • https://www.cajalaboral.com/home/acceso.asp
  • https://www.cajasoldirecto.es/2106/*
  • https://www.clavenet.net/cgi-bin/INclient_7054
  • https://www.cajavital.es/Appserver/vitalnet*
  • https://banca.cajaen.es/Jaen/INclient.jsp
  • https://www.cajadeavila.es/cgi-bin/INclient_6094
  • https://www.caixatarragona.es/esp/sec_1/oficinacodigo.jsp
  • http://caixasabadell.net/banca2/tx0011/0011.jsp
  • https://www.caixaontinyent.es/cgi-bin/INclient_2045
  • https://www.caixalaietana.es/cgi-bin/INclient_2042
  • https://www.cajacirculo.es/ISMC/Circulo/acceso.jsp
  • https://areasegura.banif.es/bog/bogbsn*
  • https://www.bgnetplus.com/niloinet/login.jsp
  • https://www.caixagirona.es/cgi-bin/INclient_2030*
  • https://www.unicaja.es/PortalServlet*
  • https://www.sabadellatlantico.com/es/*
  • https://oi.cajamadrid.es/CajaMadrid/oi/pt_oi/Login/login
  • https://www.cajabadajoz.es/cgi-bin/INclient_6010*
  • https://extranet.banesto.es/npage/OtrosLogin/LoginIBanesto.htm
  • https://montevia.elmonte.es/cgi-bin/INclient_2098*
  • https://www.cajacanarias.es/cgi-bin/INclient_6065
  • https://oie.cajamadridempresas.es/CajaMadrid/oie/pt_oie/Login/login_oie_1
  • https://www.gruppocarige.it/grps/vbank/jsp/login.jsp
  • https://bancopostaonline.poste.it/bpol/bancoposta/formslogin.asp
  • https://privati.internetbanking.bancaintesa.it/sm/login/IN/box_login.jsp
  • https://hb.quiubi.it/newSSO/x11logon.htm
  • https://www.iwbank.it/private/index_pub.jhtml*
  • https://web.secservizi.it/siteminderagent/forms/login.fcc
  • https://www.isideonline.it/relaxbanking/sso.Login*
  • https://scrigno.popso.it*
  • https://www.halifax-online.co.uk/MyAccounts/MyAccounts.aspx*
  • https://ibank.barclays.co.uk/olb/x/LoginMember.do
  • https://www.halifax-online.co.uk/_mem_bin/*
  • https://online*.lloydstsb.co.uk/logon.ibc
  • https://home.ybonline.co.uk/ral/loginmgr/*
  • https://www.mybank.alliance-leicester.co.uk/login/*
  • https://www.ebank.hsbc.co.uk/main/IBLogon.jsp
  • https://www.isbank.com.tr/Internet/ControlLoader.aspx*
  • https://light.webmoney.ru/default.aspx
  • https://olb2.nationet.com/MyAccounts/frame_MyAccounts_WP2.asp*
  • https://www*.banking.first-direct.com/1/2/*
  • https://cardsonline-consumer.com/RBSG_Consumer/VerifyLogin.do
  • *//money.yandex.ru/index.xml
  • *//money.yandex.ru/
  • *//mail.yandex.ru/index.xml
  • *//mail.yandex.ru/
  • https://www.rbsdigital.com/Login.asp*
  • https://banking*.anz.com/*
  • https://olb2.nationet.com/signon/signon*
  • https://www.nwolb.com/Login.asp*
  • https://home2ae.cd.citibank.ae/CappWebAppAE/producttwo/capp/action/signoncq.do
  • https://internetbanking.aib.ie/hb1/roi/signon
  • https://lot-port.bcs.ru/names.nsf?#ogin*
  • *wellsfargo.com*
  • https://web.da-us.citibank.com/cgi-bin/citifi/portal/l/l.do
  • https://web.da-us.citibank.com/cgi-bin/citifi/portal/l/autherror.do*
  • https://rupay.com/index.php
  • https://light.webmoney.ru/default.aspx
  • *banquepopulaire.fr/*
  • http://*.osmp.ru/
  • https://www.uno-e.com/local_bdnt_unoe/Login_unoe2.html
  • https://www.ccm.es/cgi-bin/INclient_6105
  • https://www.gruposantander.es/
  • https://banking.*.de/cgi/ueberweisung.cgi
  • https://internetbanking.gad.de/banking
  • https://www.citibank.de/*/jba/mp#/SubmitRecap.do

It attempts to steal sensitive online banking information, such as user names and passwords. This routine risks the exposure of the user's account information, which may then lead to the unauthorized use of the stolen data.

It attempts to steal information from the following banks and/or other financial institutions:

  • eBay
  • HSBC
  • e-gold
  • Wellsfargo
  • PayPal
  • US Bank
  • TD Canada Trust
  • Citizens Bank
  • PNC Bank
  • Sun Trust
  • Fifthy Third Bank
  • Citibank
  • Bank of America
  • Wachovia
  • Chase
  • Open Bank
  • Banesto
  • Grupo Santader
  • BBVA
  • Bancaja Empresas
  • Procredit Bank
  • Barclays
  • Lloyds TSB
  • DAB Bank
  • NatWest
  • Yorkshire Bank
  • Clydesdale Bank
  • Co-operative Bank
  • Halifax
  • Banco Popular
  • Banco Herrero
  • Banco Pastor
  • Caja Murcia
  • Banco Mediolanum
  • Caja Rioja
  • Caja Laboral
  • Caja Soldirecto
  • Clavenet
  • Caja Vital
  • Caja de Avila
  • Caixa Tarragona
  • Caixa Sabadell
  • Caixa Ontinyent
  • Caixa Laietana
  • Caja Circulo
  • Banif
  • Banco Guipuzcoano
  • Uni Caja
  • SabadellAtlantico
  • Caja Madrid
  • Caja Badajoz
  • Banesto
  • El Monte
  • Caja Canarias
  • Caja Madrid Empresas
  • Gruppo Carige
  • Banca Intesa
  • Qui UBI
  • IWBank
  • Sec Servizi
  • Banca Popolare di Sondrio
  • Alliance & Leicester
  • Türkiye İş Bankası
  • WebMoney
  • Nationwide
  • First Direct
  • Royal Bank of Scotland
  • Yandex
  • RBS Digital
  • Rupay
  • Banque Populaire

Stolen Information

This spyware sends the gathered information via HTTP POST to the following URL:

  • http://{BLOCKED}rp.com/stat/gate_in.php

Other Details

This spyware checks for the presence of the following processes which are related to Outpost Personal Firewall and ZoneLabs Firewall Client:

  • outpost.exe
  • zlclient.exe

It terminates if either of the said processes exist. This is to ensure that it runs uninterrupted. It also has rootkit capabilities, which enables it to hide its processes and files from the user.

SOLUTION

Minimum Scan Engine:

8.900

VSAPI OPR PATTERN File:

7.721.00

VSAPI OPR PATTERN Date:

24 Dec 2010

Step 1

Before doing any scans, Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 users must disable System Restore to allow full scanning of their computers.

Step 2

Remove the malware/grayware file that dropped/downloaded TSPY_ZBOT.XMAS

Step 3

Identify and delete files detected as TSPY_ZBOT.XMAS using either the Startup Disk or Recovery Console

[ Learn More ]

Step 4

Restore these modified registry values

[ Learn More ]

Important:Editing the Windows Registry incorrectly can lead to irreversible system malfunction. Please do this only if you know how to or you can seek your system administrator's help. You may also check out this Microsoft article first before modifying your computer's registry.


 
  • In HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
    • From: Userinit = "%System%\userinit.exe,%System%\sdra64.exe,"
      To: Userinit = "%System%\userinit.exe,"

Step 5

Delete this registry value

[ Learn More ]

Important: Editing the Windows Registry incorrectly can lead to irreversible system malfunction. Please do this step only if you know how or you can ask assistance from your system administrator. Else, check this Microsoft article first before modifying your computer's registry.


  • In HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile
    • EnableFirewall = "0"
  • In HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Network
    • UID = "{computer name}_{random numbers}"

Step 6

Delete this registry key

[ Learn More ]

Important: Editing the Windows Registry incorrectly can lead to irreversible system malfunction. Please do this step only if you know how or you can ask assistance from your system administrator. Else, check this Microsoft article first before modifying your computer's registry. Before you could do this, you must restart in Safe Mode. For instructions on how to do this, you may refer to this page If the preceding step requires you to restart in safe mode, you may proceed to edit the system registry.

  • In HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\Microsoft
    • Protected Storage System Provider
  • In HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer
    • {43BF8CD1-C5D5-2230-7BB2-98F22C2B7DC6}
  • In HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer
    • {19127AD2-394B-70F5-C650-B97867BAA1F7}

Step 7

Search and delete this folder

[ Learn More ]
Please make sure you check the Search Hidden Files and Folders checkbox in the More advanced options option to include all hidden folders in the search result.
  • %System%\lowsec

Step 8

Remove these strings added by the malware/grayware/spyware in the HOSTS file

[ Learn More ]
    127.0.0.1 downloads
    127.0.0.1 downloads
    127.0.0.1 downloads
    127.0.0.1 downloads
    127.0.0.1 downloads
    127.0.0.1 rads.mcaf
    127.0.0.1 liveupdat
    127.0.0.1 liveupdat
    127.0.0.1 liveupdat
    127.0.0.1 update.sy
    127.0.0.1 download7 
    127.0.0.1 download6 
    127.0.0.1 download5 
    127.0.0.1 download4 
    127.0.0.1 download3 
    127.0.0.1 download2 
    127.0.0.1 download1 
    127.0.0.1 avu.zonel
    127.0.0.1 retail.sp
    127.0.0.1 retail01.
    127.0.0.1 retail02.
    127.0.0.1 acs.panda
    127.0.0.1 pccreg.an
    127.0.0.1 dl1.antiv
    127.0.0.1 dl2.antiv
    127.0.0.1 dl3.antiv
    127.0.0.1 dl4.antiv
    127.0.0.1 fr.mcafee
    127.0.0.1 mcafee.co
    127.0.0.1 antivirus
    127.0.0.1 ftp.esafe
    127.0.0.1 ftp.europ
    127.0.0.1 ftp.syman
    127.0.0.1 us.mcafee
    127.0.0.1 security.
    127.0.0.1 download.
    127.0.0.1 shop.syma
    127.0.0.1 dispatch.
    127.0.0.1 f-secure.
    127.0.0.1 kaspersky
    127.0.0.1 mast.mcaf
    127.0.0.1 secure.na
    127.0.0.1 sophos.co
"

Step 9

Scan your computer with your Trend Micro product to delete files detected as TSPY_ZBOT.XMAS. If the detected files have already been cleaned, deleted, or quarantined by your Trend Micro product, no further step is required. You may opt to simply delete the quarantined files. Please check this Knowledge Base page for more information.


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